History of Animation | Types of Animation | What is Animation | Principles of Animation | Traditional Animation | Timeline of Animation:- The animation is a method in which pictures are manipulated to appear as moving images. Today most of the animation is made with Computer-Generated-Imagery(CGI). Computer animation can be very detailed 3D Animation, while 2D computer animation can be used for stylistic reasons, low bandwidth or faster real-time rendering. Other common animations method can apply for stop-motion techniques to two and three-dimensional objects like paper cutouts, puppets or clay figures.
Commonly the effect of the animation is achieved by the rapid succession of sequential images that minimally differ from each other. The animation is that part of cinema life which attract people to go on their platform. It gives you a comfort zone which you couldn’t leave it. The illusion as in motion pictures is created in that manner which provides you a vision to go through on another world.
HISTORY OF ANIMATION
The history of animation started long before the development of the cinematography. Humans have probably attempted to depict motion as far as back of the paleolithic period. Shadowplay and the magic lantern offered popular shows with the projected images on a screen, moving as the result of manipulation of images.
PRINCIPLES OF ANIMATION
In 1883, the phenakistiscope introduced the stroboscopic principle of modern animation and would also provide the basis of cinematography.
There are several examples of early sequential images that may seem similar to a series of animation drawing. Most of these examples would only allow an extremely low frame rate when they are animated, resulting in short and crude animations that are not very lifelike.
You don’t have to be a cartoonist to have animation be a big part of your life. An animation is everywhere- in your homes, schools, work, and everywhere there’s a screen. and if you grew up in the United States, chances are you’ve witnessed seminal accomplishment in animation history without even knowing it. The story which you have seen in animation they are not in real life these are designed or animated in that manner which you imagined in your life they brought in your real life.
Early ways of showing motion- Archeological aircraft prove that we have been attempting to depict things in motion as long as we have been able to draw. Some notable examples from ancient times, as well as an example from the European Renaissance, include:
- SHAHR-SUKHTEH– A bronze-age pottery bowl depicts goats leaping(Shahr-e Sukhteh, Iran).
- VITRUVIAN MAN– Leonardo da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man drawing shows multiple angles, implying movements.
Animation Before Film- With the spread of the Industrial Revolution of Europe and North America in the 18th and the 19th centuries came experimentation with machines that would make images appear to move.
- MAGIC LANTERN- The Magic Lantern is an image projector using pictures on a sheet of glass. Since some sheets contain moving parts, it is considered the first example of projected animation.
TIMELINE OF ANIMATION
During what may consider being the “Golden Age” of animation, theatrical cartoons became an integral part of popular culture. These years are defined by the rise of Walt Disney(Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, and Silly Symphonies), Warner Brothers, MGM, and Fleischer (Betty Boop, Popeye).
THE AMERICAN TELEVISION ERA
The animation industry began to adapt to the fact that television continued its rise as the entertainment medium of choice for American families. Studios created many cartoons for TV, using a “limited animation” style. By the mid 80’s, with help of cable channels such as The Disney Channel and Nickelodeon, cartoons were ubiquitous on TV.
MODERN AMERIAN ERA
The CGI(Computer Generated Imagery) revolutionized animation. A principal difference of CGI animation compared to traditional animation is that drawing is replaced by the 3D modeling, almost like a virtual version of a stop motion. A form of Animation that combines the two and uses 2D computer drawing can be considered computer-aided animation.
In our childhood, there is some memory are stacked. These animations are reasons which became our childhood so memorable. In our daily routine, we always wait for a Sunday to watch a cartoon channel. In that particular time, the movement which these animations create in our mind they are superb. We always think about “if I have a power of that cartoon character we do that, we do this “but in real life, we get the knowledge in deep they are just a imagination or we can say that it is part of the enjoyment.
Early animation which started appearing before 1910, consisted of simple drawing photographed once at a time. It was an extremely labor intensive, as there were literally hundreds of drawing per minute of film.
Early animators used animation techniques known as stop action. With the camera stopped, items would be rearranged, removed or added to the shot then the director would start rolling again. Live actions films using this procedure were called tricks plays.
The first animated cartoon was created in 1910 by pioneers such as Emile Cohl and Winsor McCay. The animation timeline then starts to progress with several films being produced during the next twenty years. There are lots of films which touch the sky while it animated in an Extra level of technique. Then Walt Disney took animation to a new level adding sound in 1928 and producing the first full length animated film in 1937- Snow White and Seven Dwarfs.
Since the release of Snow White and the Seven Dwarf’s by Disney in 1937, animated films have become one of the most commonly enjoyed forms of entertainment. Disney has a long history of developing, producing and distributing films such as a Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin and the Lion King. The stories and characters of these popular animated feature films have become part of our modern traditions, enjoyed by every generation. Traditionally, these popular animated feature films have been created using the time consuming and the labor-intensive process of two dimensional,hand-drawn cel animation.
Today animation was rarely done on a Cel(Cel is a sheet of transparent sheet of cellulose acetate used as a medium for painting animation frames. It is transparent so that it can be laid over other celluloid and/or a painted background, then photographed.)Cel animation is extremely time-consuming and requires incredible organization and concentration to detail. The way of doing animation today is different and is more effective and it majorly depends on the new advanced computer technology.
WHO INVENTED ANIMATION
Charles-Emile Reynaud further developed his projection praxinoscope into the Theater Optique with transparent hand painted colorful pictures in a long perforated strip wound between two spools, patented in December 1888. From 28 October 1892 to March 1900 Reynaud gave over 12,800 shows to a total of over 500.00 visitors at the Musee Grevin in Paris. His Pantomimes Lumineuses series of animated films each contained 300 to 700 frames that were manipulated back and forth to last 10 to 15 minutes per films.
When the film became a common medium some manufacturers of optical toys are adapted small magic lanterns into toy films projectors for short loops of films. By 1902, they were producing many chromolithography film loops, usually by tracing live-action film footage.
Some early filmmakers, including J.Stuart Blackton, Arthur Melbourne-Cooper, Segundo de Chomon, and Edwin S. Porter experimented with stop-motion animation, possibly since around 1899. Blackton’s The Haunted Hotel(1907) was the first huge success that Baffled audiences with objects apparently moving by themselves and inspired other filmmakers to try the technique for themselves.
In 1908, Emile Cohl’s Fantasmagorie was released with a white on black chalk line look created with negative prints from a black ink drawing on white paper. The film largely consists of a stick figure moving about and encountering all kinds of morphing objects, including a wine bottle that transforms into a flower.
During 1910’s the production of animated short films typically referred to as “cartoons”, became an industry of its own and cartoons short were produced for showing in movie theaters. The most successful producer at the time was John Randolph Bray, who along with animator Earl Hurd, patented the cel animator process that dominated the animation for the rest of the decade.